Economic Gain versus Ecological Damage from the Introduction of Non-native Freshwater Fish: Case Studies from Kenya

Phil Hickley1, 2, *, Mucai Muchiri2, Robert Britton 3, Rosalind Boar 4, 2
1 Environment Agency, United Kingdom
2 Moi University, Kenya
3 Bournemouth University, United Kingdom
4 University of East Anglia, United Kingdom

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© 2008 Hickley et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Environment Agency, Hoo Farm Industrial Estate, Worcester Road, Kidderminster DY11 7RA, United Kingdom; Tel: +441562534161; E-mail:


Non-native freshwater fish species that have been introduced to the inland waters of Kenya are listed and the consequences of stocking such fish are reviewed. Original species composition and lake ecosystem function can be detrimentally affected but, also, the introduction of non-native species can result in significant economic benefit. In the context of impact on recipient fish communities and the performance of exploited fisheries, the merits or otherwise of alien fish species introductions are discussed with the aid of two case histories; lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) in Lake Baringo and a number of species, particularly carp (Cyprinus carpio), in Lake Naivasha.