RESEARCH ARTICLE


A Review of Flavobacterium Psychrophilum Biology, Clinical Signs, and Bacterial Cold Water Disease Prevention and Treatment



Michael E. Barnes1, *, Michael L. Brown2
1 South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks McNenny State Fish Hatchery 19619 Trout Loop Spearfish, South Dakota USA 57783
2 South Dakota State University Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Box 2140B, SNP 138 North Campus Drive Brookings, South Dakota USA 57007


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© 2011 Barnes and Brown

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks McNenny State Fish Hatchery 19619 Trout Loop Spearfish, South Dakota USA 57783; Tel: 605-642-1262; Fax: 605-642-6921; E-mail: mike.barnes@state.sd.us


Abstract

Bacterial coldwater disease and other infections caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum are a worldwide concern, particularly for freshwater salmonid hatcheries. F. psychrophilum infections can be difficult to control; antibiotic resistance is common and no effective vaccines are currently available. This review summarizes the biology and characteristics of this important pathogen, as well as the techniques required for isolation and identification. In addition, the epidemiology, clinical signs, treatment, and possible preventative measures of bacterial coldwater disease are discussed.

Keywords: Bacterial coldwater disease, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, salmonid, pathogenic bacteria.